There are many diverse kinds of soil, and each offers unique qualities. So, you can find when you have a garden; you may be lucky or unlucky in your soil type. Some soils are created by nature and are influenced by the climate and other natural causes, while others are transported to the area by external forces.
So, how do you define transported soil compared to residual soil? Residual soils result from chemical weathering, and the climate, source material, topography and drainage, and soil age influence their features.
Weathered soil deposits, better known as transported soil, are moved from one location to another by natural forces such as wind, water, and more. In our guide, you can learn more about residual and transported soil’s differences and features.
By the end, you’ll better understand the soil in your garden, and if you find extremely fertile soil, chances are, you have residual soil. This will offer better engineering properties in the earth materials, and you can have a better garden without adding different soil types to compensate. (Read Pouring Concrete On Wet Ground)
What is Residual Soil
Residual soils are the products of the parent rock’s in-situ weathering without any soil transportation of the base soil particles. Residual soils are common in various parts of the world, including Africa, South Asia, Australia, Central, and South America, Southeastern North America, and some regions of Europe.
Generally speaking, humid tropical regions like Brazil, Nigeria, South India, Singapore, and the Philippines are home to the most significant areas of these soils.
Characteristics of Residual Soil
The characteristics of residual soils created as byproducts of chemical weathering rely on environmental factors like climate, parent materials, topography and drainage, and age.
The original rock has a lower role in the diversity of residual soil than other factors like climate, topography, and vegetation cover.
Here are a few key characteristics of residual soils:
- The soil’s mineralogical makeup closely resembles the original bedrock beneath it.
- The soil grains lack roundness.
- Original rock shards are found in the residual soil.
- Climate, weathering, and rock type all affect the residual soil thickness.
- A soil profile shows the topsoil gradually replaced the original rock.
Residual Soil Examples
We have seen residual soils result from rock weathering and are still present in the place of origin. For example, bentonite is a chemically weathered volcanic ash found on the parent rock from where it was derived. So, any soil present at the original location or parent rock is an example of residual soil. (Read Lawn Gravel For Muddy Yard Guide)
Residual Soil Types
There are regions where all the conditions and the parent material are ideal for forming residual soil. The tropics, for instance, well-drained regions generate reddish lateritic soil.
Other poorly drained areas can favor expansive black clays made of montmorillonite. Over volcanic ash and rock regions, andosols can form. In these locations, you will find allophane and metastable halloysite.
What Is Transported Soil
Transported soil are weathered soil deposits moved from one location, which can be from glaciers, wind, or natural forces.
Soil transportation types:
- Water-transported soils (Lacustrine deposits, Marine Deposits)
- Wind transported soils.
- Gravity deposited soils.
- Glacier-deposited soils.
Transported Soil Type and Example
Now we have seen what makes residual soil and transported soil; it is good to see what is transported soil by makeup and by the example of soil transportation methods.
Water-Deposited Soil Particles
Water transports soil deposits. The size of water-carried soil deposits depends on water velocity. Fast-moving water can erode slopes and deposit sediment in valleys. High rapid water can carry a lot of soil by suspension or rolling. As velocity drops, coarser particles settle. Slower speeds deposit finer soils. When velocity nears zero in motionless water, a delta forms.
Soils carried by water (coarse particles) and deposited are called alluvial deposits. Alluvial soils created in a lake are called Lacustrine deposits and are coarse particles at the edges of the lakes. Such soil transportation makes up marine deposits when fine particles are transported by water; soil particles then end up in the ocean, which are called marine deposits.
Aeolian deposits, also known as wind-transported soils, are soils carried by the wind. Wind speed affects the particles’ size, where giant dunes are generated in places like desert regions and arid regions on the shores of seas.
Aeolian deposits, which are delivered by wind, are another type of deposit. Loess is a form of silt, an aeolian soil deposited by the wind. Aeolian soil is highly compressible and low-density, thus lacking any load-bearing ability. (Learn How To Get Rid Of Pine Needles)
Glacial soils deposited make up another form of soil. Some soils are referred to as till, where melting glaciers produces these soils. Drifts are others that glaciers either directly or indirectly create.
Some soils are moved and deposited by gravity. As an illustration, consider how gravitational force causes something to go down a steep slope. “talus” refers to colluvial soil where gravity moves or deposits. These gravity-transported soils contain high-quality, coarse-grained soil particles and rock fragments essential for engineering projects.
How Is Transported Soil Different From Residual Soil?
The main difference between the transported soil and the residual soil is that the transported soil is washed or blown away from its parent rock. The soil still exists as a site of a formation known as residual soil.
Sitting on their parent rock, residual soils have characteristics that are influenced by the parent rock’s characteristics. Weathered rocks that have been moved are known as transported soils. Because they include minerals from various transported rocks, these soils are extremely fertile.
The difference between Residual soil and transported soil are as follows.
- A type of soil known as residual soil is still present where it was formed. The term “transported soil” refers to soil that is moved from one location to another.
- To its parent rock, residual soil does not detach. Moving away from its parent rock is transported soil.
- Several types of grain particles are present in residual soil. Weak grain particles in the transported soil are omitted.
- The residual soil mineral composition of the parent material will not change. The soil transported will have a different soil mineral content.
- The original rock in the residual soil is the parent material. The transported soil contains mixtures of several source materials.
Soil Transported By Dual Factors
Some soil is transported by one or more means, so soil is transported by the windfalls because of gravitational force down a slope and into a river. From here, it is transported to another region.
At some stage, it could be possible that residual soil and transported soil find themselves in the same areas.
1. Water Transported Soil
Water-transported soil is known as soil that is transported by flowing water through rivers, valleys, and streams. Through streams and rivers, the soil may be transported as suspended particles.
Larger particles migrate from one location to another when the water flows at a faster velocity. Alluvial soil is known as soil that is transported and deposited by rivers. Lacustrine soil is the term for the soil that a lake carries.
2. Wind Transported Soil
Wind-transported soil refers to soil transported by the wind. The wind transports fine-grained soils like silt and clay in arid regions. Due to the deposition of soil like coarse sand in arid regions, dunes are formed.
3. Glacial Deposits
A relatively big group of transported soil contains glacial deposits due to the glacier’s melting, which results in the deposition of all components. The glacial soil may be compacted to the desired density and has good shear strength. The enormous masses of ice known as glaciers are moving toward the land due to melting.
Due to the ice melting, these glaciers transported soil from one location to another. Glacial soil is the name known for this particular form of soil that is transported by glaciers.
4. Gravity Deposits
Gravitational force is another technique for moving the soil. The soil can only be moved a short distance by gravity. Talus is the name for the soil that is transported by gravity. This includes the deposits left behind by landslides.
The soil deposited by gravity is also referred to as colluvial soil. Typically, it is made up of coarse-grained particles. Different-sized and shaped grain particles are present in the soil that is moved by gravity. Due to the lack of external forces to move soil over great distances, there is less movement when soil makes gravity deposits. (Read Digging A Trench Guide)
What is the difference between residual and transported soil?
Weathered soil deposits are known as transported soil and are soil transported from one location to another by glaciers, wind, and other natural forces. Wind-transported soils, water-deposited soils, and glacier-deposited soils can all be categorized based on their modes of transport.
Following the parent rock’s weathering, residual soil remains in one location. Central and South America are among the areas with such soil.
What Is Residual Soil?
The weathering of the bedrock beneath leads to residual soil forming. The parent rock can be seen in the residual soil’s texture and makeup.
What Is Transported Soil?
Materials that have been moved from their original location by gravity, wind, water, glaciers, or human activity – alone or in combination – are referred to as transported soils. The characteristics of the final soil mass are influenced by how you find the transported soil.
Residual soils that come from rock weathering produce residual soils, which stay where they came from with little or no movement of the individual soil particles. In contrast, the difference between residual soil and transported soil, residual soil is made in one location while soil transported is called transported soil, those that have formed in one area but are then transported to and deposited in a different place.
What Is the Difference Between Transported Soil & Residual Soil?
The main difference between residual and transported soils is:
The parent rock is washed or blown away by the transported soil. The soil is called residual soil when it remains where it was formed. Weathered rock fragments carried by wind and water and eventually break down into smaller fragments to settle down are called transported soil.
Conclusion of Residual and Transported Soil
Both transported soil & residual soil have a wide variety of characteristics, uses, and types. This kind of knowledge is crucial for engineers and other professionals who want to make the most of their property and create the highest-quality soil. Although transported soils also have some advantages, residual offers more advantages.